**Presentation of Some Metaheuristics for the Optimization of Complex Systems**

**Fatma TANGOUR **

LARA, École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis

BP 37, Le Belvédère 1002 Tunis, Tunisie

**Pierre BORNE**

LAGIS, École Centrale de Lille, Cité scientifique

BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France

**Abstract**: Some metaheuristics for the optimization of complex systems are proposed in this paper. The metaheuristic approaches can be separate in two classes: the local search techniques and the global ones. An important difficulty which appears in complex optimization problems is the existence of constraints which can be strict and inviolable or soft. To resolve these problems, some hybrid approaches are considered.

**Keywords**: Optimization, complex systems, metaheuristics, tabu search, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, tunneling Algorithms.

**Fatma Tangour** graduated from Ecole Normale Superieure de l’Enseignement Technique of Tunis, received the Master degree of automatic and signal treatment in 2004 and Doctoral degree from the Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieur de Tunis and the Ecole Centrale de Lille in 2007. She is currently researcher in LARA Automatique at the Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieur de Tunis and working with the higher institute of sciences applied and technology of Kairouan, Tunisia. Her research interests are in the area of optimization methods for discrete events systems, computer science and operational research.

**Pierre Borne** received the Master degree of Physics in 1967, the Masters of Electronics, of Mechanics and of Applied Mathematics in 1968. The same year he obtained the Diploma of “Ingénieur IDN” (French “Grande Ecole”). He obtained the PhD in Automatic Control of the University of Lille in 1970 and the DSc of the same University in 1976. He became Doctor Honoris Causa of the Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russia) in 1999, of the University of Waterloo (Canada) in 2006 and of the Polytechnic University of Bucarest (Romania). He is author or co-author of about 200 Journal articles and book chapters, and of 34 plenary lectures and of more than 250 communications in international conferences. He has been the supervisor of 68 PhD thesis and is author of 20 books. He is Fellow of IEEE and has been President of the IEEE/SMC society in 2000 and 2001. He is presently Professor “de classe exceptionnelle” at the Ecole Centrale de Lille and director of the french pluriformations national group of research in Automatic Control

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**CITE THIS PAPER AS**:

Fatma TANGOUR, Pierre BORNE, **Presentation of Some Metaheuristics for the Optimization of Complex Systems**, *Studies in Informatics and Control*, ISSN 1220-1766, vol. 17 (2), pp. 169-180, 2008.

**1. Introduction**

Many optimization problems such as combinatorial optimization [3, 31] ones are usually N-P hard problems which prevent the implementation of exact used solving methodologies. It is the reason why engineers prefer to use metaheuristics which are able to produce good solutions in a reasonable computation time. The metaheuristic approaches can be separate in two classes: the local search techniques and the global ones. Among the local search techniques the Tabu search [14] is the more known. The other methods usually involve a part of stochastic approach, like the Simulated Annealing [1, 6, 27], the Genetic or Evolutionary Algorithms [28, 29, 36], the Ant Colony Optimization [11] or the Particle Swarm Optimisation [4, 8].An important difficulty which appears in complex optimization problems is the existence of constraints which can be strict and inviolable or soft but with penalization which increase strongly with the degree of violation.

A possible acceleration of the convergence can be obtained by using tunnelling algorithms.

The muliobjective optimization is considered at the end of this paper with presentation of the OWA approach, of the Choquet integral and the Pareto optimality.

**9. Conclusion**

The various metaheuristics which have been presented here have been implemented in various applications such as the optimization manufacturing problems but in each case the formulation of the problem have to be adapting to the chosen algorithm.

Very often hybrid approaches are implemented using simultaneously several metaheuristics and usual local search like the hill climbing methods.

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