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Networked Hydrographical Systems: A Reactive Control Strategy Integrating Time Transfer Delays

Ecole des Mines de Douai, Département Informatique et Automatique
941, rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex, France

Laboratoire Génie de Production
ENIT, 47 av. d’Azereix, BP 1629, 65016 Tarbes Cedex, France

Abstract: A reactive control strategy integrating time transfer delays is proposed to improve the water-asset management of networked hydrographical systems. The considered systems are characterized by large scale networks where each diffluence is equipped with a control gate and a measurement point. Modelling methods of the networked hydrographical systems with equipped diffluences are presented. The proposed strategy, based on a supervision and hybrid control accommodation approach, requires generic resource allocation and setpoint assignment rules. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the reactive control strategy.

Keywords: Supervision, hybrid control accommodation, resource allocation, setpoint assignment, gridded systems, water management.

Eric Duviella was born in France in 1978. Since 2007, he is assistant professor in the Computer Sciences and Automatic Department of the Ecole des Mines de Douai, France. In 2005, he has obtained his Ph.D degree from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse on ‘Reactive control of extended dynamic systems with variable time delays – Application to hydrographic networks’. His research interests include modelling, hybrid dynamical systems, supervision, reactive control strategy.

Pascale Chiron was born in France in 1961. She is assistant professor (Maître de conférences) at ENIT (National School of Engineers in Tarbes) since 2000. She has obtained her Ph.D in 1989 at Ecole Centrale in Nantes on ” matching and similarity criterion in medical imaging “. She was a postdoctoral fellow at Radiology and nuclear medicine department, Faculty of medicine, Kyoto University, Japan from 1989 to 1990. Now, she is involved in theme ” Planning, Control, Supervision and Distributed Simulation” in the ” Automated Production ” Group of Laboratoire de Génie de Production at ENIT. Her domains of interest are modelling and simulation for system control.

Philippe Charbonnaud was born in 1962 at Angoulême, France and received his Ph.D graduation in 1991 from the University Bordeaux 1. Since 2002, he is graduated Hd.R (Habilitation à diriger les Recherches) from Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse. Since 2003, he fas been Full Professor at Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tarbes. He is member of the IFAC TC 5.4 on Large Scale Control System. His main topic of interest concerns the real-time decision support systems, and more particularly supervision and control accommodation of distributed systems.

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Eric DUVIELLA,  Pascale CHIRON, Philippe CHARBONNAUD, Networked Hydrographical Systems: A Reactive Control Strategy Integrating Time Transfer Delays, Studies in Informatics and Control, ISSN 1220-1766, vol. 17 (2), pp. 153-168, 2008.

1. Introduction

Hydrographical system is a geographically distributed network composed of dams and interconnected rivers and channels. It is characterized by great dimensions and composed of confluences and diffluences. In real case, each diffluence is very often equipped with a control gate and a measurement point. The flow discharges are greatly disturbed by the human activities and weather conditions. An interesting problem to address, deals with the allocation of water quantities in excess toward the catchment’s areas and of water quantities in lack amongst the users. The representations of networked hydrographical systems with equipped diffluences, as well as the determination of the discharge allocation on the network, are an es-sential step for the design of reactive control strategy. In [18], a hydrographical network representation considering only the diffluences is proposed. Indexed nodes represent the points of diffluence, and di-rected arcs, whose indexes represent the number of the node downstream, represent the hydrographical systems that connect two nodes. This model was modified and extended to the case of the confluences in [13]. In these approaches, the control and measurement instrumentations are not taken into account. In [4, 15], object-oriented modelling techniques and a XML approach make it possible to represent the elements of the hydrographical networks and of the drinking water distribution networks. Finally, modelling ap-proaches are proposed for the optimal water management of the irrigation networks in [17], of the drink-ing water distribution networks, and of sewerage networks in [3]. For these four last approaches, the rep-resentation of the control and measurement instrumentations allows integrating computation rules of the discharge propagation upstream to downstream, but these rules are not adapted with the water-asset man-agement optimization goal.

Optimization techniques were proposed in the literature for the water-asset management. The approach pro-posed in [10] allows the adjustment of the criteria and the constraints of an optimization problem starting from the supervision of the network variables. However, the complexity of the hydrographical networks and the number of the instrumented points to be taken into account in the optimization problem require the use of decomposition and coordination techniques of the studied systems as proposed in [17]. These techniques are used for the optimal water management of irrigation systems. In addition, a supervision and hybrid con-trol accommodation strategy is proposed in [9] for the water-asset management of the Neste canal located in the south western region of France. This strategy is successfully adapted for the case of dam-river networks that are characterized by non-equipped diffluences [7]. Finally, to take into account majority of the net-worked hydrographical systems, the supervision and hybrid control accommodation strategy has to be adapted for the case of diffluences equipped with a control gate and a measurement point.

In this paper, the water asset-management by resource allocation and setpoint assignment is considered. Hydrographical systems with confluences and equipped diffluences and their representation by a weighted digraph are presented in section 2. In section 3, the reactive control strategy is defined for the water-asset management of these systems. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is shown by simulation within the framework of a networked hydrographical system that is part of a real network. This system is composed of two diffluences and one confluence, and supplies with water downstream dams.

5. Conclusion

The water-asset management of networked hydrographical systems which are characterized by great di-mensions and composed of confluences and equipped diffluences is improved by using the supervision and hybrid control accommodation strategy proposed here. In order to implement the strategy, a weighted digraph representation of dam-river systems was proposed and the resource allocation and setpoint as-signment rules were defined. The reactive control strategy aims at detecting discrepancies, diagnosing the resource state and accommodating the discharge setpoints sent to the gates. The strategy was evaluated in the case of a dam-river system composed of two diffluences and one confluence, which supplies with water downstream dams. The simulation results show that the reactive strategy allows valorising the wa-ter by resource allocation and setpoint assignment. The strategy proposed in this paper is a generic tool for water resource valorisation whatever the configuration of the dam-river networks is. An interesting extension of the strategy would be the integration of fault detection and isolation methods for sensors and actuators in the supervision scheme.

Image437Figure 12. (a) Discharge Image438, (b) diagnosed states from M4. Setpoints assigned to (c) gate G8, (d) gate G9, and (e) gate q11.


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